Publications 

The New Lion Economy - Unlocking the value of lions and their landscapes

The lion has become symbolic of the rapid economic growth experienced by some African countries. Labelled the ‘lion economies’ by policy makers and the press, commentators have had fun with wordplay related to ‘lions’,

‘prides’ and ‘roars’. But despite the iconic place that the lion holds in African society, and the conscious linking of economic development with the power of lions, there has been little notice taken of the risks that this

development agenda brings for the lion itself.

As conservationists we need to plan, govern and incentivise our actions effectively. The focus of this report is on the last of these actions, providing effective incentives for lion conservation and an overview of the

cumulative, often overlooked, benefits associated with the landscapes that lions inhabit across Africa. Relentless pressure for land use change is challenging traditional models of protection and conservation. But the

more we remove or degrade natural ecosystems, the more we are likely to lose in terms of both ecosystem services and the associated economic and social benefits that they bring.

This report provides evidence that lions are a perfect flagship or umbrella species on which to focus policy and development decisions. Investing in lion conservation confers a range of benefits which are outlined in the

following pages.

Stolton, S. and Dudley, N. 2019. The New Lion Economy. Unlocking

the value of lions and their landscapes, Equilibrium Research, Bristol, UK

Behavior-specific habitat selection by African lions may promote their persistence in a

human-dominated landscape

Co-occurrence with humans presents substantial risks for large carnivores, yet human-dominated landscapes are increasingly crucial to carnivore conservation as human land use continues to encroach on wildlife habitat. Flexibility in large carnivore behavior may be a primary factor mediating coexistence with people, allowing carnivores to calibrate their activity and habitat use to the perceived level of human risk. However, our understanding of how large carnivores adjust the timing and location of behaviors in response to variations in human activity across the landscape remains limited, impacting our ability to identify important habitat for populations outside of protected areas. Here we examine whether African lions (Panthera leo) modify their behavior and habitat use in response to risk of a human encounter, and whether behavior-specific habitat selection allows lions to access feeding opportunities in a human-dominated landscape in Kenya. We determined fine-scale behavioral states for lions using high-resolution GPS and accelerometer data, and then investigated behavior-specific habitat selection at multiple temporal and spatial scales (ranging from 15 minutes to 12 hours

and from approximately 200 meters to several kilometers). We found that lions exhibit substantial differences in habitat selection with respect to humans based on behavioral state and time of day. During the day, when risk of human encounter is highest, lions avoided areas of high human use when resting, meandering, and feeding. However, lions specifically selected for habitat near people when feeding at night. Flexible habitat use by lions thus permits access to prey, which appear to concentrate in areas near humans. The importance of habitat near peo-

ple for feeding was only apparent when analyses explicitly accounted for lion behavioral state and spatiotemporal scale, highlighting the necessity of incorporating such information when investigating human impacts on large carnivore habitat use. Our results support the contention that behavior-specific habitat selection promotes carnivore persistence in human-dominated landscapes, demonstrating the importance of considering not just whether but how large carnivores use habitat near humans when managing vulnerable populations.

Suraci, J. P., L. G. Frank, A. Oriol-Cotterill, S. Ekwanga, T. M. Williams, and C. C. Wilmers.

2019. Behavior-specific habitat selection by African lions may promote their

persistence in a human-dominated landscape. Ecology 00(00):e02644. 10.1002/ecy.2644

Guideline for the Conservation of Lions in Africa

A collection of concepts, best practice experiences and recommendations, compiled by the IUCN SSC Cat Specialist

Group on behalf of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)

The designation of geographical entities in this document, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the

expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN or the organisations of the authors and editors of the

document concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation

of its frontiers or boundaries.

IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group. 2018. Guidelines for the Conservation of Lions in Africa. Version

1.0. Muri/Bern, Switzerland, 147 pages

Landscapes of Coexistence for terrestrial carnivores: the ecological consequences of being downgraded from ultimate to penultimate predator by humans

Fear of predation can have major impacts on the behaviour of prey species. Recently the concept of the ecology of fear has been defined and formalised; yet there has been relatively little focus on how these ideas apply to large carnivore species which, although not prey sensu stricto, also experience fear as a result of threats from humans. Large carnivores are likely also subject to a Landscape of Fear similar to that described for prey species. We argue that although fear is generic, ‘human-caused mortality’ represents a distinct and very important cause of fear for large carnivores, particularly terrestrial large carnivores as their activities overlap with those of humans to a greater degree. We introduce the idea of a ‘Landscape of Coexistence’ for large carnivores to denote a subset of the Landscape of Fear where sufficient areas of low human-caused mortality risk are present in the landscape for long term coexistence of large carnivores and humans. We then explore aspects of terrestrial large carnivore behavioural ecology that may be best explained by risk of human-caused mortality, and how the nature of a Landscape of Coexistence for these large carnivores is likely to be shaped by specific factors such as habitat structure, wild and domestic prey base, and human distribution and behaviour. The human characteristics of this

Landscape of Coexistence may be as important in determining large carnivore distribution and behavioural ecology as the distribution of resources. Understanding the Landscape of Coexistence for terrestrial large carnivores is therefore importantfor their biology and conservation throughout large parts of their remaining ranges.

Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Marion Valeix, Laurence G. Frank, Corinna Riginos and

David W. Macdonald

Oikos 124: 1263–1273, 2015

doi: 10.1111/oik.02224

Spatiotemporal patterns of lion space use in a human-dominated landscape

Fear of predation can have major impacts on the behaviour of prey species. Recently the concept of the ecology of fear has been defined and formalised; yet there has been relatively little focus on how these ideas apply to large carnivore species which, although not prey sensu stricto, also experience fear as a result of threats from humans. Large carnivores are likely also subject to a Landscape of Fear similar to that described for prey species. We argue that although fear is generic, ‘human-caused mortality’ represents a distinct and very important cause of fear for large carnivores, particularly terrestrial large carnivores as their activities overlap with those of humans to a greater degree. We introduce the idea of a ‘Landscape of Coexistence’ for large carnivores to denote a subset of the Landscape of Fear where sufficient areas of low human-caused mortality risk are present in the landscape for long term coexistence of large carnivores and humans. We then explore aspects of terrestrial large carnivore behavioural ecology that may be best explained by risk of human-caused mortality, and how the nature of a Landscape of Coexistence for these large carnivores is likely to be shaped by specific factors such as habitat structure, wild and domestic prey base, and human distribution and behaviour. The human characteristics of this

Landscape of Coexistence may be as important in determining large carnivore distribution and behavioural ecology as the distribution of resources. Understanding the Landscape of Coexistence for terrestrial large carnivores is therefore importantfor their biology and conservation throughout large parts of their remaining ranges.

A. Oriol-Cotterill, D. W. Macdonald, M. Valeix, S. Ekwanga, L. G. Frank,

Published online

MS. number: 14-00512R

0003-3472/© 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.