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Peer-reviewed Publications


Socio-political and ecological fragility of threatened, free-ranging African lion populations

Samantha K. Nicholson, Amy Dickman, Amy Hinks, Jason Riggio, Hans Bauer, Andrew Loveridge, Matthew Becker, Colleen Begg, Shivani Bhalla, Dawn Burnham, Alayne Cotterill, Stephanie Dolrenry, Egil Dröge, Paul Funston, Leela Hazzah, Dennis Ikanda, Fikirte Gebresenbet, Philipp Henschel, Roseline L. Mandisodza-Chikerema, Moreangels Mbizah, Luke Hunter, Kim Jacobsen, Peter Lindsey, Nakedi Maputla, Ewan Macdonald, David W. Macdonald, Resson Kantai Duff, Craig Packer, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Tutilo Mudumba, Paolo Strampelli, Etotépé A. Sogbohossou, Peter Tyrrell & Andrew P. Jacobson 

Communications Earth & Environment volume 4, Article number: 302 (2023)



Lions are one of the world’s most iconic species but are threatened with extinction. Developing effective range-wide conservation plans are crucial but hampered by the relative lack of knowledge on specific threats facing each population and the socio-political context for conservation. Here, we present a range-wide examination of the relative fragility of lion populations, examining socio-political factors alongside ecological ones. We found Ethiopia’s Maze National Park had the most ecologically fragile geographic population while Kavango-Zambezi was the least. At a country level, lion populations had highest ecological fragility in Cameroon and Malawi. When we examined socio-political fragility, Somalia was the most fragile lion range country, followed by South Sudan. When socio-political and ecological fragility were combined, lion populations in Maze National Park and Bush-Bush (Somalia) and more broadly, Somalian and Malawian lion populations were the most fragile. These insights should help inform more nuanced and appropriately targeted lion conservation plans.

Spatiotemporal patterns of lion (Panthera leo) space use in a human–wildlife system

Mary K. Burak, Femke Broekhuis, Amy Dickman, Steven Ekwanga, Nicholas Elliot, Laurence Frank, Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Terrie M. Williams, Christopher C. Wilmers, Oswald Schmitz

Ecological Solutions and Evidence; Volume 4, Issue 3 July–September 2023, e12276

Ecological Solutions and Evidence


  1. ​Conserving large carnivores requires protecting landscape spaces that encompass all spatiotemporal scales of their movement. Large carnivores normally roam widely, but habitat loss and fragmentation can constrain their movement in ways that restrict access to resources and increase encounters with humans and potential conflict. Facilitating carnivore population coexistence with humans across landscapes requires conservation plans informed by patterns of carnivore space use, particularly at the human–wildlife interface.

  2. We sought to understand lion space use in Laikipia, Kenya. We conducted a path-selection function analysis using GPS collar data from 16 lions to assess patterns of space use across a range of spatial scales (sedentary to home range expanses; 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 km) and temporal scales (day, dusk, night and dawn). Path-selection results were then incorporated into space use maps.

  3. We found that most landscape features influenced path-selection at the broadest spatial scale (50 km), representative of home range-wide movement, thereby demonstrating a landscape-wide human impact on lion space use. We also detected sub-diurnal variation in lion path-selection which revealed limited space use during daylight hours and increased space use overnight.

  4. Our results highlight that optimal support for human–lion coexistence should be temporally adaptive at sub-diurnal scales. Furthermore, spatial approaches to lion conservation may be better generalized at broad spatial scales so that land management plans can account for home range patterns in lion space use.

Spatial co-occurrence patterns of sympatric large carnivores in a multi-use African system

Paolo Strampelli ,Philipp Henschel,Charlotte E. Searle,David W. Macdonald,Amy J. Dickman

Plos One, January 20, 2023



​Interspecific interactions can be a key driver of habitat use, and must be accounted for in conservation planning. However, spatial partitioning between African carnivores, and how this varies with scale, remains poorly understood. Furthermore, most studies have taken place within small or highly protected areas, rather than in the heterogeneous, mixed-use landscapes characteristic of much of modern Africa. Here, we provide one of the first empirical investigations into population-level competitive interactions among an African large carnivore guild. We collected detection/non-detection data for an eastern African large carnivore guild in Tanzania’s Ruaha-Rungwa conservation landscape, over an area of ~45,000 km2. We then applied conditional co-occupancy models to investigate co-occurrence between lion, leopard, and African wild dog, at two biologically meaningful scales. Co-occurrence patterns of cheetah and spotted hyaena could not be modelled. After accounting for habitat and detection effects, we found some evidence of wild dog avoidance of lion at the home range scale, and strong evidence of fine-scale avoidance. We found no evidence of interspecific exclusion of leopard by lion; rather, positive associations were observed at both scales, suggesting shared habitat preferences. We found little evidence of leopard habitat use being affected by wild dog. Our findings also reveal some interspecific effects on species detection, at both scales. In most cases, habitat use was driven more strongly by other habitat effects, such as biotic resources or anthropogenic pressures, than by interspecific pressures, even where evidence of the latter was present. Overall, our results help shed light on interspecific effects within an assemblage that has rarely been examined at this scale. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of sign-based co-occurrence modelling to describe interspecific spatial patterns of sympatric large carnivores across large scales. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for large carnivore conservation in modern African systems.

Hunting trophy import bans proposed by the UK may be ineffective and inequitable as conservation policies in multiple social-ecological contexts

Douglas A. Clark, Peadar Brehony, Amy Dickman, Lee Foote, Adam G. Hart, Charles Jonga, Moreangels M. Mbiza, Dilys Roe, Chris Sandbrook

Conservation Letters, e12935



​The UK government is considering legislation to prohibit the importation of hunting trophies. We examine documented social, ecological, and political outcomes of two previous such bans. We find that the UK government's proposal shares the shortcomings of existing bans that have (1) failed to address, or have even amplified, key threats to hunted species, (2) imposed costs on citizens of other countries, and (3) delegitimized the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Trophy import bans are blunt policy instruments that can cause more problems than they solve.


Index-based large carnivore population density and abundance estimates for the Ruaha-Rungwa conservation complex in Tanzania

Paolo Strampelli, Philipp Henschel, Charlotte E. Searle, Alex Loiruk Lobora, Halima Kiwango, David W. Macdonald, Amy J. Dickman

People and Nature, Volume 4, Issue 5, Pages 1263-1278

African Journal of EcologyVolume 61, Issue 1


The  Ruaha-Rungwa  conservation  landscape  is  a ~45,000 km2Protected Area (PA) complex in south-central Tanzania. The area is  believed  to  harbour  globally  important  populations  of  lion (Panthera leo; Bauer et al., 2016), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus; Durant et  al., 2017),  and  African  wild  dog  (Lycaon  pictus;  Woodroffe  &  Sillero-    Zubiri,    2020), as well as important populations of leopard (Panthera  pardus),  spotted  hyaena  (Crocuta  crocuta),  and  striped hyaena  (Hyaena  hyaena)  (TAWIRI, 2009  ).  However,  no  empirical estimates of landscape-wide population abundance exist for these populations, with the only available estimates being based on ex-pert opinion or extrapolations from densities elsewhere (Mesochina et al., 2010; Riggio et al., 2013). Here, we present landscape-level population density and abundance estimates of five large carnivore species in Ruaha-Rungwa. We calculated population density as an index from spoor (track) data, while acknowledging the technique's low precision (as revealed by recent research) and providing recom-mendations for future monitoring.

An experimental game to examine pastoralists' preferences for human–lion coexistence strategies

Rebecca Sargent, O. Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Stephen P. Rushton, BenJee Cascio ,Ana Grau, Andrew R. Bell, Nils Bunnefeld, Amy Dickman, Marion Pfeifer

People and Nature, Volume 4, Issue 5, Pages 1263-1278



  1. Reconciling conflicts between wildlife conservation and other human activities is a pervasive, multifaceted issue. Large carnivores, such as the African lion Panthera leo are often the focus of such conflicts as they have significant ecological and cultural value but impose severe social and financial costs on the communities that live alongside them.

  2. To effectively manage human–lion conflict, it is vital to understand stakeholder decision-making and preferences regarding mitigation techniques and coexistence strategies.

  3. We used a novel experimental game framed around lions and livestock protection, played across eight villages in Tanzania, to examine stakeholder behaviour in response to three incentive structures: support for non-lethal scaring, and individual- and community-level subsidies for provision of wildlife habitat.

  4. We found that non-lethal deterrent methods were the preferred mitigation strategy and that individual subsidies most increased the provision of wildlife habitat. Subsidies that were conditional on other community members' decisions were less effective at increasing habitat choices. Player characteristics and attitudes appeared to have little influence on game behaviour. However, there was some evidence that gender, wealth, perceptions of respect, and the behaviour of other players affected decision-making.

  5. Achieving success in managing conservation conflicts requires genuine stakeholder participation leading to mutually beneficial results. Our findings suggest that, while incentive-based instruments can promote pro-conservation behaviour, these may be more effective when targeted at individuals rather than groups. We demonstrate how experimental games offer a practical and engaging approach that can be used to explore preferences and encourage discussion of conflict management.

Habitat use of and threats to African large carnivores in a mixed-use landscape

Paolo Strampelli, Philipp Henschel, Charlotte E Searle, David W Macdonald, Amy J Dickman

Conservation Biology, e13943



Large carnivores increasingly inhabit human-affected landscapes, which exhibit heterogeneity in biotic resources, anthropogenic pressures, and management strategies. Understanding large carnivore habitat use in these systems is critical for their conservation, as is the evaluation of competing management approaches and the impacts of significant
land-use changes. We used occupancy modeling to investigate habitat use of an intact eastern African large carnivore guild across the 45,000 km2 Ruaha-Rungwa landscape in south-central Tanzania. We determined the relative impact on five large carnivore species of biotic, anthropogenic, and management factors at the scales of home range selection
and short-term use within home ranges. We also specifically tested the effect of abandonment of trophy hunting areas on large carnivore occurrence. Patterns of habitat use differed among species. Lions (Panthera leo) appeared affected by top-down limitation, as their occurrence was significantly negatively associated with illegal human activity (β = –0.63 [SE
0.28]). African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), instead, were limited by biotic features; the species was negatively associated with riverine areas of high sympatric predator density (β = –1.00 [SE 0.43]) and used less-productive habitats. Spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) and leopard (Panthera pardus) persisted in more disturbed areas and across habitat types. Large carnivore occurrence was not affected by whether an area was used for photographic or trophy hunting tourism; regular law enforcement was instead a better predictor of occurrence. All species fared better in actively managed hunting areas than those that had been abandoned by operators. Overall, our findings highlight the divergent habitat requirements within large carnivore guilds and the importance of adopting an integrated approach to large carnivore
conservation planning in modern systems. We also identified a novel threat to African conservation areas in the form of decreased management investments associated with the abandonment of trophy hunting areas

Exploring the connections between giraffe skin disease and lion predation

AB Muneza, DW Linden, MH Kimaro, AJ Dickman, DW Macdonald, GJ Roloff, MW Hayward, RA Montgomery

Journal of Zoology, Volume 316, P49-60



Rates at which predators encounter, hunt and kill prey are influenced by, among other things, the intrinsic condition of prey. Diseases can considerably compromise body condition, potentially weakening ability of afflicted prey to avoid predation. Understanding predator–prey dynamics is particularly important when both species are threatened, as is the case with lions (Panthera leo) and giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Importantly, an emergent disease called giraffe skin disease (GSD) may affect predatory interactions of lions and giraffes. Hypotheses suggest that GSD may negatively affect the likelihood of giraffes surviving lion attacks. We evaluated giraffe–lion interactions in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania, where 85% of the giraffe population has GSD. We monitored lion hunting behaviour and estimated proportion of the giraffe population with GSD and evidence of ‘lion marks’ from assumed previous lion predation attempts (i.e. claw marks, bite marks and missing tails). Although we recorded lions hunting and feeding on 16 different prey species, giraffes represented the largest prey category (27%; n = 171 of 641). For age and sex cohorts combined, 26% (n = 140 of 548) of encountered giraffes displayed evidence of previous lion predation attempts. Occurrence of lion marks was higher for adults and males in the giraffe population, suggesting that these individuals were more likely to survive lion attacks. We also found marginal evidence of a positive relationship between giraffes with severe GSD and occurrence of lion marks. Our results identify giraffes as important prey species for lions in Ruaha National Park and suggest that GSD severity plays a minor role in likelihood of surviving a lion attack. This is the first study to explore connections between lion predation and GSD. We explore the ecological implications of disease ecology on predator–prey interactions and consider opportunities for future research on causal links between GSD and giraffe vulnerability to lion predation.

Intergenerational inequity: stealing the joy and benefits of nature from our children

Matt W Hayward, Ninon FV Meyer, Niko Balkenhol, Chad T Beranek, Cassandra K Bugir, Kathleen V Bushell, Alex Callen, Amy J Dickman, Andrea S Griffin, Peter M Haswell, Lachlan G Howell, Christopher A Jordan, Kaya Klop-Toker, Remington J Moll, Robert A Montgomery, Tutilo Mudumba, Liudmila Osipova, Stéphanie Périquet, Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, William J Ripple, Lilian P Sales, Florian J Weise, Ryan R Witt, Peter A Lindsey

Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2022, P28



We discuss the principal issues of intergenerational inequity of nature and wild places. We focus on the broader issue regarding the decrease in nature-based experiences future generations will face, and how the lack of such experiences will shape the future of biodiversity conservation. Throughout this manuscript we use biodiversity –the variety and variability of life on Earth– and species –the key units representing biodiversity– somewhat interchangeably to broaden the understanding of this paper beyond the scientific community.

Understanding nuanced preferences for carnivore conservation: To know them is not always to love them

DW Macdonald, PJ Johnson, D Burnham, A Dickman, A Hinks, C Sillero-Zubiri, EA Macdonald

Global Ecology and Conservation, Volume 37, e02150

Global Ecology and Conservation; Pages 204-214


​In a study of more than 3000 participants from nine countries, we explored peoples’ preferences for the conservation of two groups of species that frequently interact with humans: large carnivores (n = 29 species in the order Carnivora with average adult body mass > 15 kg), and wild canids and wild felids (n = 73 species). We presented participants with pairs of photographs and recorded which they would prioritise for conservation. We also attempted to identify the species attributes which were associated with preference. Among the large carnivores, respondents prefered felids over hyaenids and canids. For large carnivores, images of species in social groups attracted lower preference scores. Felids were strongly preferred to canids. Both for large carnivores overall, and for felids and canids, people preferred species with a more threatened IUCN status, larger body size and striking torso colouration. The effect of peoples’ familiarity with a species on their preference depended on their affinity with it (how much they reported ‘liking’ it). Where respondents reported liking a species in the felid/canid study, preference score tended to increase with familiarity. For species which were not liked, preference declined with familiarity. We propose that this reflects negative experiences or cultural histories. There were nuanced differences in conservation preferences between countries, which may also arise from socio-cultural factors. These findings reinforce the importance of understanding the local context when identifying species as potential flagships for wildlife conservation but also suggest that some preferences seem to broadly generalise across different groups of stakeholders.

What is a lion worth to local people–Quantifying of the costs of living alongside a top predator

Kim S Jacobsen, Erlend Dancke Sandorf, Andrew J Loveridge, Amy J Dickman, Paul J Johnson, Susana Mourato, Davide Contu, David W Macdonald

Ecological Economics, Volume 198, p. 107431



​The presence of large predators entails a range of costs and some benefits for the communities that live alongside them. The cost in terms of the value of livestock lost to predation is well known, but this represents only a part of the costs that people experience, as it does not account for non-market costs such as fear, avoidance behaviours and threat to human life. We quantify the total cost of lion presence for agro-pastoral communities in Zimbabwe using economic valuation techniques. The total perceived value of one additional lion was estimated to be negative US$180 per person per year, which is several hundred times larger than the market value of the average loss of livestock per household. If making simplifying economic assumptions, this discrepancy reveals the magnitude of the non-market costs associated with the presence of large predators. The disvalue of lion presence was linked to fear, ecocentric values, wealth and trust in compensation institutions. We also demonstrate the importance of considering heterogeneity in preferences within communities; segments of the population did not have net negative value attached to lions, and some disliked monetary compensation. We also estimate the willingness-to-accept for two human-wildlife conflict mitigation programs in terms of acceptable increases in lion numbers, as opposed to monetary units which is the conventional approach in economic valuation studies. We argue that estimating value in terms of biodiversity outcomes should be used more widely. We also demonstrate the distorting effect of distrust towards compensation in choice experiments and argue that economic valuation methods employing choice experiments should control for this distrust when estimating willingness-to-pay. These discoveries have relevance for a wide range of situations where potentially dangerous wildlife species co-exist with people.

Threat analysis for more effective lion conservation

Hans Bauer, Amy Dickman, Guillaume Chapron, Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Samantha K Nicholson, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Luke Hunter, Peter Lindsey, David W Macdonald

Oryx, Volume 56, p. 108-115



​We use comparable 2005 and 2018 population data to assess threats driving the decline of lion Panthera leo populations, and review information on threats structured by problem tree and root cause analysis. We define 11 threats and rank their severity and prevalence. Two threats emerged as affecting both the number of lion populations and numbers within them: livestock depredation leading to retaliatory killing of lions, and bushmeat poaching leading to prey depletion. Our data do not allow determination of whether any specific threat drives declines faster than others. Of 20 local extirpations, most were associated with armed conflicts as a driver of proximate threats. We discuss the prevalence and severity of proximate threats and their drivers, to identify priorities for more effective conservation of lions, other carnivores and their prey.

Camera trapping and spatially explicit capture–recapture for the monitoring and conservation management of lions: Insights from a globally important population in Tanzania

Paolo Strampelli, Charlotte E. Searle, Josephine B. Smit, Philipp Henschel, Lameck Mkuburo, Dennis Ikanda, David W. Macdonald, Amy J. Dickman 

Ecological Solutions and Evidence, Volume 3, e12129

Ecological Solutions and Evidence


  1. Accurate and precise estimates of population status are required to inform and evaluate conservation management and policy interventions. Although the lion (Panthera leo) is a charismatic species receiving increased conservation attention, robust status estimates are lacking for most populations. While for many large carnivores population density is often estimated through spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR) applied to camera trap data, the lack of pelage patterns in lions has limited the application of this technique to the species.

  2. Here, we present one of the first applications of this methodology to lion, in Tanzania's Ruaha-Rungwa landscape, a stronghold for the species for which no empirical estimates of status are available. We deployed four camera trap grids across habitat and land management types, and we identified individual lions through whisker spots, scars and marks, and multiple additional features.

  3. Double-blind identification revealed low inter-observer variation in photo identification (92% agreement), due to the use of xenon-flash cameras and consistent framing and angles of photographs.

  4. Lion occurred at highest densities in a prey-rich area of Ruaha National Park (6.12 ± SE 0.94 per 100 km2), and at relatively high densities (4.06 ± SE 1.03 per 100 km2) in a community-managed area of similar riparian-grassland habitat. Miombo woodland in both photographic and trophy hunting areas sustained intermediate lion densities (1.75 ± SE 0.62 and 2.25 ± SE 0.52 per 100 km2, respectively). These are the first spatially explicit density estimates for lion in Tanzania, including the first for a trophy hunting and a community-managed area, and also provide some of the first insights into lion status in understudied miombo habitats.

  5. We discuss in detail the methodology employed, the potential for scaling-up over larger areas, and its limitations. We suggest that the method can be an important tool for lion monitoring and explore the implications of our findings for lion management.

Fostering Coexistence Between People and Large Carnivores in Africa: Using a Theory of Change to Identify Pathways to Impact and Their Underlying Assumptions

Sarah M. Durant, Agnese Marino, John D. C. Linnell, Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Stephanie Dloniak, Stephanie Dolrenry, Paul Funston, Rosemary J. Groom, Lise Hanssen, Jane Horgan1, Dennis Ikanda, Audrey Ipavec, Bernard Kissui, Laly Lichtenfeld, J. Weldon McNutt, Nicholas Mitchell, Elizabeth Naro, Abdoulkarim Samna and Gidey Yirga.

Frontiers in Conservation Science, 24 January 2022



Coexistence with large carnivores poses challenges to human well-being, livelihoods, development, resource management, and policy. Even where people and carnivores have historically coexisted, traditional patterns of behavior toward large carnivores may be disrupted by wider processes of economic, social, political, and climate change. Conservation interventions have typically focused on changing behaviors of those living alongside large carnivores to promote sustainable practices. While these interventions remain important, their success is inextricably linked to broader socio-political contexts, including natural resource governance and equitable distribution of conservation-linked costs and benefits. In this context we propose a Theory of Change to identify logical pathways of action through which coexistence with large carnivores can be enhanced. We focus on Africa's dryland landscapes, known for their diverse guild of large carnivores that remain relatively widespread across the continent. We review the literature to understand coexistence and its challenges; explain our Theory of Change, including expected outcomes and pathways to impact; and discuss how our model could be implemented and operationalized. Our analysis draws on the experience of coauthors, who are scientists and practitioners, and on literature from conservation, political ecology, and anthropology to explore the challenges, local realities, and place-based conditions under which expected outcomes succeed or fail. Three pathways to impact were identified: (a) putting in place good governance harmonized across geographic scales; (b) addressing coexistence at the landscape level; and (c) reducing costs and increasing benefits of sharing a landscape with large carnivores. Coordinated conservation across the extensive, and potentially transboundary, landscapes needed by large carnivores requires harmonization of top-down approaches with bottom-up community-based conservation. We propose adaptive co-management approaches combined with processes for active community engagement and informed consent as useful dynamic mechanisms for navigating through this contested space, while enabling adaptation to climate change. Success depends on strengthening underlying enabling conditions, including governance, capacity, local empowerment, effective monitoring, and sustainable financial support. Implementing the Theory of Change requires ongoing monitoring and evaluation to inform adaptation and build confidence in the model. Overall, the model provides a flexible and practical framework that can be adapted to dynamic local socio-ecological contexts.

Temporal scale of habitat selection for large carnivores: Balancing energetics, risk and finding prey

Anna C. Nisi, Justin P. Suraci, Nathan Ranc, Laurence G. Frank, Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Steven Ekwanga, Terrie M. Williams, Christopher C. Wilmers

Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 91, p.182-195



  1. When navigating heterogeneous landscapes, large carnivores must balance trade-offs between multiple goals, including minimizing energetic expenditure, maintaining access to hunting opportunities and avoiding potential risk from humans. The relative importance of these goals in driving carnivore movement likely changes across temporal scales, but our understanding of these dynamics remains limited.

  2. Here we quantified how drivers of movement and habitat selection changed with temporal grain for two large carnivore species living in human-dominated landscapes, providing insights into commonalities in carnivore movement strategies across regions.

  3. We used high-resolution GPS collar data and integrated step selection analyses to model movement and habitat selection for African lions Panthera leo in Laikipia, Kenya and pumas Puma concolor in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California across eight temporal grains, ranging from 5 min to 12 hr. Analyses considered landscape covariates that are related to energetics, resource acquisition and anthropogenic risk.

  4. For both species, topographic slope, which strongly influences energetic expenditure, drove habitat selection and movement patterns over fine temporal grains but was less important at longer temporal grains. In contrast, avoiding anthropogenic risk during the day, when risk was highest, was consistently important across grains, but the degree to which carnivores relaxed this avoidance at night was strongest for longer term movements. Lions and pumas modified their movement behaviour differently in response to anthropogenic features: lions sped up while near humans at fine temporal grains, while pumas slowed down in more developed areas at coarse temporal grains. Finally, pumas experienced a trade-off between energetically efficient movement and avoiding anthropogenic risk.

  5. Temporal grain is an important methodological consideration in habitat selection analyses, as drivers of both movement and habitat selection changed across temporal grain. Additionally, grain-dependent patterns can reflect meaningful behavioural processes, including how fitness-relevant goals influence behaviour over different periods of time. In applying multi-scale analysis to fine-resolution data, we showed that two large carnivore species in very different human-dominated landscapes balanced competing energetic and safety demands in largely similar ways. These commonalities suggest general strategies of landscape use across large carnivore species.


Coexistence in an African pastoral landscape: Evidence that livestock and wildlife temporally partition water resources

Erin Connolly, James Allan, Peadar Brehony, Alice Aduda, Guy Western, Samantha Russell, Amy Dickman, Peter Tyrrell

African Journal of Ecology

African Journal of Ecology

Leopard population density varies across habitats and management strategies in a mixed-use Tanzanian landscape

Charlotte E Searle, Josephine Smit, Paolo Strampelli, Lameck Mkuburo, Dennis Ikanda, David W Macdonald, Andrew J Loveridge, Amy J Dickman

01/19 - 01/23

Biological Conservation Volume 257, May 2021, 109120

Density responses of lesser-studied carnivores to habitat and management strategies in southern Tanzania’s Ruaha-Rungwa landscape

Marie Hardouin, Charlotte E Searle, Paolo Strampelli, Josephine Smit, Amy Dickman, Alex L Lobora, J Marcus Rowcliffe

PloS one 16: 0242293


Attracting investment for Africa's protected areas by creating enabling environments for collaborative management partnerships

P Lindsey, M Baghai, G Bigurube, S Cunliffe, A Dickman, K Fitzgerald, M Flyman, P Gandiwa, B Kumchedwa, A Madope, M Morjan, A Parker, K Steiner, P Tumenta, K Uiseb, A Robson

Biological Conservation 255: 108979

Biological Conservation Volume 257, May 2021, 109120

Soap operas will not wash for wildlife

Keith Somerville, Amy Dickman, Paul J Johnson, Adam G Hart

People and Nature

People & Nature

Estimating leopard density across the highly modified human-dominated landscape of the Western Cape, South Africa

Carolyn H Devens, Matt W Hayward, Thulani Tshabalala, Amy Dickman, Jeannine S McManus, Bool Smuts, Michael J Somers

Oryx 55: 34-45

Oryx journal


The importance of tangible and intangible factors in human‐carnivore coexistence

Kim S Jacobsen, Amy J Dickman, David W Macdonald, Susana Mourato, Paul Johnson, Lovemore Sibanda, Andrew J Loveridge

Conservation Biology

Conservation Biology

Commercially-driven lion part removal: What is the evidence from mortality records?

Peter Coals, Amy Dickman, Jane Hunt, Ana Grau, Roseline Mandisodza-Chikerema, Dennis Ikanda, David W Macdonald, Andrew Loveridge

Global Ecology and Conservation 24: e01327

Global Ecology and Conservation Volume 24, December 2020, e01327

Beyond banning wildlife trade: COVID-19, conservation and development

Dilys Roe, Amy Dickman, Richard Kock, EJ Milner-Gulland, Elizabeth Rihoy

World Development 136: 105121

World Development Volume 136, December 2020, 105121

Conserving Africa’s wildlife and wildlands through the COVID-19 crisis and beyond

Peter Lindsey, James Allan, Peadar Brehony, Amy Dickman, Ashley Robson, Colleen Begg, Hasita Bhammar, Lisa Blanken, Thomas Breuer, Kathleen Fitzgerald, Michael Flyman, Patience Gandiwa, Nicia Giva, Dickson Kaelo, Simon Nampindo, Nyambe Nyambe, Kurt Steiner, Andrew Parker, Dilys Roe, Paul Thomson, Morgan Trimble, Alexandre Caron, Peter Tyrrell

Nature ecology & evolution 4: 1300-1310

Nature Ecology & Evolution

Drivers of leopard (Panthera pardus) habitat use and relative abundance in Africa's largest transfrontier conservation area

Charlotte E Searle, Dominik T Bauer, M Kristina Kesch, Jane E Hunt, Roseline Mandisodza-Chikerema, Michael V Flyman, David W Macdonald, Amy J Dickman, Andrew J Loveridge

Biological Conservation 248: 108649

Biological Conservation Volume 257, May 2021, 109120

Wars over Wildlife: Green Militarisation and Just War Theory

Amy Dickman, Paul Johnson, Peter Coals, Lauren Harrington, Peter Tyrrell, Keith Somerville, Alayne Cotterill, David Whetham

Conservation & Society 18: 293-297

Conservation & Society

The relative effects of prey availability, anthropogenic pressure and environmental variables on lion (Panthera leo) site use in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape during the dry season

Leandro Abade, Jeremy Cusack, Remington J Moll, Paolo Strampelli, Amy J Dickman, David W Macdonald, Robert A Montgomery

Journal of Zoology 310: 135-144

Journal of Zoology

Insights into the status and distribution of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in an understudied potential stronghold in southern Tanzania

P Strampelli, C Searle, J Smit, A Grau, P Henschel, A Lobora, N Mitchell, D Macdonald, A Dickman

African Journal of Ecology 59: 334-341

African Journal of Ecology

Threat analysis for more effective lion conservation

Hans Bauer, Amy Dickman, Guillaume Chapron, Alayne Oriol Cotterill, Samantha K. Nicholson, Claudio Sillero Zubiri, Luke Hunter, Peter Lindey and David W. Macdonald

Oryx, Published online by Cambridge University Press

Oryx journal


Consequences matter: Compassion in conservation means caring for individuals, populations and species

Paul J Johnson, Vanessa M Adams, Doug P Armstrong, Sandra E Baker, Duan Biggs, Luigi Boitani, Alayne Cotterill, Emma Dale, Holly O’donnell, David JT Douglas, Egil Droge, John G Ewen, Ruth E Feber, Piero Genovesi, Clive Hambler, Bart J Harmsen, Lauren A Harrington, Amy Hinks, Joelene Hughes, Lydia Katsis, Andrew Loveridge, Axel Moehrenschlager, Christopher O’kane, Meshach Pierre, Steve Redpath, Lovemore Sibanda, Pritpal Soorae, Mark Stanley Price, Peter Tyrrell, Alexandra Zimmermann, Amy Dickman


Animals 9: 1115

Quantifying the severity of giraffe skin disease via photogrammetry analysis of camera trap data

Arthur B Muneza, Waldemar Ortiz-Calo, Craig Packer, Jeremy J Cusack, Trevor Jones, Meredith S Palmer, Alexandra Swanson, Margaret Kosmala, Amy J Dickman, David W Macdonald, Robert A Montgomery


Journal of wildlife diseases 55: 770-781

Trophy Hunting Bans Imperil Biodiversity

By By Amy Dickman, Rosie Cooney, Paul J. Johnson, Maxi Pia Louis, Dilys Roe and 128 signatories

Conservation frontlines

Conservation & Wildlife Management, October 2019

Conservation geopolitics

Timothy Hodgetts, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Ewan A Macdonald, David W Macdonald

Conservation geopolitics

Conservation Biology 33: 250-259

Creating Landscapes of Coexistence

Guy Western, David W Macdonald, Andrew J Loveridge, Amy J Dickman

Conservation & Society

Conservation & Society 17: 204-217

Is there an elephant in the room? A response to Batavia et al

Amy Dickman, Paul J Johnson, Michael t Sas-Rolfes, Enrico Di Minin, Andrew Loveridge, Caroline Good, Lovemore Sibanda, Ruth Feber, Lauren Harrington, Moreangels Mbizah, Alayne Cotterill, Dawn Burnham, David Macdonald

Conservation Letters

Conservation Letters; 12:e12603

Behavior-specific habitat selection by African lions may promote their persistence in a human-dominated landscape

Suraci, J. P., L. G. Frank, A. Oriol-Cotterill, S. Ekwanga, T. M. Williams, and C. C. Wilmers.

Ecology volume 100

Ecology volume 100; e02644


Resolving a conservation dilemma: vulnerable lions eating endangered zebras

Timothy G O’Brien, Margaret F Kinnaird, Steven Ekwanga, Christopher Wilmers, Terrie Williams, Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Daniel Rubenstein, Laurence G Frank

PloS one 13: e0201983

Plos one grevy zebra.png

More than $1 billion needed annually to secure Africa’s protected areas with lions

Peter A Lindsey, Jennifer RB Miller, Lisanne S Petracca, Lauren Coad, Amy J Dickman, Kathleen H Fitzgerald, Michael V Flyman, Paul J Funston, Philipp Henschel, Samuel Kasiki, Kathryn Knights, Andrew J Loveridge, David W Macdonald, Roseline L Mandisodza-Chikerema, Sean Nazerali, Andrew J Plumptre, Riko Stevens, Hugo W Van Zyl, Luke TB Hunter

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115: E10788-E10796


Spatial variation in leopard (Panthera pardus) site use across a gradient of anthropogenic pressure in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape

Leandro Abade, Jeremy Cusack, Remington J Moll, Paolo Strampelli, Amy J Dickman, David W Macdonald, Robert A Montgomery

PloS one 13: e0204370

PloS one 13: e0204370

Combining biological and socio‐political criteria to set spatial conservation priorities for the endangered African wild dog

T Kuiper, AJ Dickman, AE Hinks, C Sillero‐Zubiri, EA Macdonald, DW Macdonald

Animal Conservation 21: 376-386

Animal Conservation 21: 376-386

Improving the role of global conservation treaties in addressing contemporary threats to lions

Timothy Hodgetts, Melissa Lewis, Hans Bauer, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Ewan Macdonald, David Macdonald, Arie Trouwborst

Biodiversity and conservation 27: 2747-2765

Biodiversity and conservation 27: 2747-2765

The Costs and Causes of Human-Cheetah Conflict on Livestock and Game Farms

Amy Dickman, Niki A. Rust, Lorraine K. Boast, Mary Wykstra, Louisa Richmond-Coggan, Rebecca Klein, Moses Selebatso, Maurus Msuha, Laurie Marker 

Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation, Chapter 13: 173-189

Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation, Chapter 13: 173-189

Use of Livestock Guarding Dogs to Reduce Human-Cheetah Conflict

Amy Dickman, Gail Potgieter, Jane Horgan, Kelly Stoner, Rebecca Klein, Jeannine McManus, Laurie Marker

Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation, Chapter 15: 209-221

Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation, Chapter 13: 173-189

A sideways look at conservation and consistency in tourism policy

Amy Dickman, Craig Packer, Paul J Johnson, David W Macdonald

Conservation Biology 32: 744-746

Learning from the past to prepare for the future: felids face continued threat from declining prey

Christopher James Sandom, S Faurby, J‐C Svenning, D Burnham, A Dickman, AE Hinks, EA Macdonald, WJ Ripple, J Williams, DW Macdonald

Ecography 41: 140-152

Ecography 41: 140-152


Don't forget to look down–collaborative approaches to predator conservation

Steve M. Redpath, John D. C. Linnell, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Luigi Boitani, Nils Bunnefeld, Amy Dickman, R. J. Gutiérrez, R. J. Irvine, Maria Johansson, Aleksandra Majić, Barry J. McMahon, Simon Pooley, Camilla Sandström, Annelie Sjölander-Lindqvist, Ketil Skogen, Jon E. Swenson, Arie Trouwborst, Juliette Young, E. J. Milner-Gulland

Biological reviews 92; 2157-2163

Identifying ambassador species for conservation marketing

E.A.Macdonald, A.Hinks, D.J.Weiss, A.Dickman, D.Burnham, C.J.Sandom, Y.Malhi, D.W.Macdonald

Global Ecology and Conservation 12; Pages 204-214

Lions, trophy hunting and beyond: knowledge gaps and why they matter

David W. Macdonald, Andrew J. Loveridge, Amy Dickman, Paul J. Johnson, Kim S. Jacobsen, Byron Du Preez

Mammal Review; 247-253

International law and lions (Panthera leo): understanding and improving the contribution of wildlife treaties to the conservation and sustainable use of an iconic carnivore

Arie Trouwborst, Melissa Lewis, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Amy Hinks, Timothy Hodgetts, Ewan A. Macdonald, David W. Macdonald

Nature Conservation 21: 83-128

Deconstructed cat communities: quantifying the threat to felids from prey defaunation

C. J. Sandom, J. Williams, D. Burnham, A. J. Dickman, A. E. Hinks, E. A. Macdonald, D. W. Macdonald

Diversity and Distributions 23: 667-679

An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human–predator relations

S. Pooley, M. Barua, W. Beinart, A. Dickman, G. Holmes, J. Lorimer, A.J. Loveridge, D.W. Macdonald, G. Marvin, S. Redpath, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A. Zimmermann, E.J. Milner-Gulland

Conservation Biology 31; 513-523

Revealing kleptoparasitic and predatory tendencies in an African mammal community using camera traps: a comparison of spatiotemporal approaches

Jeremy J. Cusack, Amy J. Dickman, Monty Kalyahe, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Chris Carbone, David W. MacDonald, Tim Coulson

OIKOS 126; 812-822

The performance of African protected areas for lions and their prey

P.A.Lindsey, L.S.Petracca, P.J.Funston, H.Bauer, A.Dickman, K.Everatt, M.Flyman, P.Henschel, A.E.Hinks, S.Kasiki, A.Loveridge, D.W.Macdonald, R.Mandisodza, W.Mgoola, S.M.Miller, S.Nazerali, L.Siege, K.Uiseb, L.T.B.Hunter

Biological Conservation 209; 137-149

Relative efforts of countries to conserve world’s megafauna

Peter A.Lindsey, Guillaume Chapron, Lisanne S. Petracca, Dawn Burnham, Matthew W. Hayward, Philipp Henschel, Amy E. Hinks, Stephen T. Garnett, David W. Macdonald, Ewan A. Macdonald, William J. Ripple, Kerstin Zander, Amy Dickman

Global Ecology and Conservation 10; Pages 243-252

Conserving the world's megafauna and biodiversity: the fierce urgency of now

William J. Ripple, Guillaume Chapron, José Vicente López-Bao, Sarah M. Durant, David W. Macdonald, Peter A. Lindsey, Elizabeth L. Bennett, Robert L. Beschta, Jeremy T. Bruskotter, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Richard T. Corlett, Chris T. Darimont, Amy J. Dickman, Rodolfo Dirzo, Holly T. Dublin, James A. Estes, Kristoffer T. Everatt, Mauro Galetti, Varun R. Goswami, Matt W. Hayward, Simon Hedges, Michael Hoffmann, Luke T. B. Hunter, Graham I. H. Kerley, Mike Letnic, Taal Levi, Fiona Maisels, John C. Morrison, Michael Paul Nelson, Thomas M. Newsome, Luke Painter, Robert M. Pringle, Christopher J. Sandom, John Terborgh, Adrian Treves, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, John A. Vucetich, Aaron J. Wirsing, Arian D. Wallach, Christopher Wolf, Rosie Woodroffe, Hillary Young, Li Zhang

BioScience 67; 197-200

From attitudes to actions: predictors of lion killing by Maasai warriors

Leela Hazzah, Alistair Bath, Stephanie Dolrenry, Amy Dickman, Laurence Frank 

PloS One; e0170796


Landscapes of Coexistence for terrestrial carnivores: the ecological consequences of being downgraded from ultimate to penultimate predator by humans

Scent Lure Effect on Camera-Trap Based Leopard Density Estimates

Alexander Richard Braczkowski, Guy Andrew Balme, Amy Dickman, Julien Fattebert, Paul Johnson, Tristan Dickerson, David Whyte Macdonald, Luke Hunter

PloS One; e0151033

Landscapes of Coexistence for terrestrial carnivores: the ecological consequences of being downgraded from ultimate to penultimate predator by humans

Money, Myths and Man-Eaters: Complexities of Human–Wildlife Conflict

Amy J. Dickman, Leela Hazzah

Problematic Wildlife: 339-356

Landscapes of Coexistence for terrestrial carnivores: the ecological consequences of being downgraded from ultimate to penultimate predator by humans

Aging traits and sustainable trophy hunting of African lions

Jennifer RB Miller, Guy Balme, Peter A Lindsey, Andrew J Loveridge, Matthew S Becker, Colleen Begg, Henry Brink, Stephanie Dolrenry, Jane E Hunt, Ingela Jansson, David W Macdonald, Roseline L Mandisodza-Chikerema, Alayne Oriol Cotterill, Craig Packer, Daniel Rosengren, Ken Stratford, Martina Trinkel, Paula A White, Christiaan Winterbach, Hanlie EK Winterbach, Paul J Funston

Biological Conservation 201; 160-168

Landscapes of Coexistence for terrestrial carnivores: the ecological consequences of being downgraded from ultimate to penultimate predator by humans

The global decline of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and what it means for conservation

S.M. Durant, N. Mitchell, R. Groom, N. Pettorelli, A. Ipavec, A.P. Jacobson, R. Woodroffe, M. Böhm, L.T.B. Hunter, M.S. Becker, F. Broekuis, S. Bashir, L. Andresen, O. Aschendorn, M. Beddiaf, F. Belbachir, A. Belbachir-Bazi, A. Berbash, I. Brandao de Matos Machado, C. Breitenmoser, M. Chege, D. Cilliers, H. Davies-Mostert, H.H. de Longh, A.J. Dickman, F. Ezekiel, M.S. Farhadinia, P. Funston, P. Henschel, J. Horgan, H. Jowkar, R. Klein, P.A. Lindsey, J. M'soka, K. Marnewick, J. Melzheimer, J. Merkle, M. Mshuha, H. O'Neill, M. Parker, G. Purchase, S. Sahailou, Y. Saidu, A. Samna, A. Schmidt-Küntzel, E. Selebatso, E.A. Sogbohossou, A. Soultan, E. Stone, E. van der Meer, R.J. van Vuuren, M. Wykstra, K. Young-Overton

PNAS 114; 528-533


Landscapes of Coexistence for terrestrial carnivores: the ecological consequences of being downgraded from ultimate to penultimate predator by humans

Alayne Oriol-Cotterill, Marion Valeix, Laurence G. Frank, Corinna Riginos and David W. Macdonald

OIKOS 124; 1263–1273

Who Bites the Bullet First? The Susceptibility of Leopards Panthera pardus to Trophy Hunting

Alex Richard Braczkowski, Guy Andrew Balme, Amy Dickman, David Whyte Macdonald, Julien Fattebert, Tristan Dickerson, Paul Johnson, Luke Hunter

PloS One; e0123100

Rosettes, Remingtons and Reputation: Establishing Potential Determinants of Leopard (Panthera pardus) Trophy Prices Across Africa

Alexander R. Braczkowski, Guy A. Balme, Amy Dickman, David W. Macdonald, Paul J. Johnson, Peter A. Lindsey, Luke T.B. Hunter

African Journal of Wildlife Research, 45(2);158-168

Random versus Game Trail-Based Camera Trap Placement Strategy for Monitoring Terrestrial Mammal Communities

Jeremy J. Cusack, Amy J. Dickman, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Chris Carbone, David W. Macdonald, Tim Coulson

PloS One; e0126373

Applying a random encounter model to estimate lion density from camera traps in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

Jeremy J. Cusack, Alexandra Swanson, Tim Coulson, Craig Packer, Chris Carbone, Amy J. Dickman, Margaret Kosmala, Chris Lintott, J. Marcus Rowcliffe

The Journal of Wildlife Management 79; 1014-1021

Priorities for global felid conservation

Amy J Dickman , Amy E Hinks , Ewan A Macdonald , Dawn Burnham , David W Macdonald 

Conservation Biology 29; 854-864

The moral basis for conservation: how is it affected by culture?

Amy Dickman, Paul J Johnson, Freya van Kesteren, David W Macdonald

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13; 325-331

Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems

Sarah M. Durant, Matthew S. Becker, Scott Creel, Sultana Bashir, Amy J. Dickman, Roseline C. Beudels-Jamar, Laly Lichtenfeld, Ray Hilborn, Jake Wall, George Wittemyer, et al

Journal of Applied Ecology 52; 544-551

Spatiotemporal patterns of lion space use in a human-dominated landscape

A. Oriol-Cotterill, D. W. Macdonald, M. Valeix, S. Ekwanga, L. G. Frank

Animal Behaviour 101; 27-39


Assessing the relative importance of landscape and husbandry factors in determining large carnivore depredation risk in Tanzania’s Ruaha landscape

L. Abade, D.W. Macdonald, A.J. Dickman

Biological Conservation 180; 241-248

Using Landscape and Bioclimatic Features to Predict the Distribution of Lions, Leopards and Spotted Hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha Landscape

Leandro Abade, David W. Macdonald, Amy J. Dickman

PloS One; e0096261

Carnivores, culture and ‘contagious conflict’: Multiple factors influence perceived problems with carnivores in Tanzania’s Ruaha landscape

Amy J.Dickman, Leela Hazzah, Chris Carbone, Sarah M Durant

Biological Conservation 178; 19-27


Behavioural adjustments of lion (Panthera Leo) in response to risk of human-caused mortality

Alayne Cotterill

University of Oxford

Conserving large populations of lions – the argument for fences has holes

S. Creel, M. S. Becker, S. M. Durant, J. M'Soka, W. Matandiko, A. J. Dickman, et at

Ecology Letters 16; 1413

The human dimension in addressing conflict with large carnivores

Amy Dickman, Silvio Marchini, Michael Manfredo

Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2; 110-126


From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human-carnivore conflict and human-primate conflict

Amy J Dickman

Folia Primatologica 83; 377-387


A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human–carnivore coexistence

Amy J. Dickman, Ewan A. Macdonald, and David W. Macdonald

PNAS 108; 13937-13944


Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict

A. J. Dickman

Animal Conservation 13; 458-466

Past, present and future of cheetah in Tanzania: from long term study to conservation strategy

Sarah M Durant, A J Dickman, T Maddox, Margaret Waweru, Tatianna Caro, Nathalie Pettorelli

Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids; 373-392

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